Old Age Security (OAS), the first universal pension for Canadians, was introduced in 1952:
However, retirement still meant a drastically reduced standard of living for many people. There was growing public and political support for a universal, employment-based pension plan that would be portable from job to job. The provinces agreed to another Constitutional amendment to extend federal government powers beyond legislation that applied only to old age.
As a result, the contributory Canada Pension Plan (CPP) and Quebec Pension Plan (QPP) were established in 1966:
The Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) was introduced in 1967 as a temporary measure to further reduce poverty among seniors.
By the 100th anniversary of Confederation, in 1967, Canada's current retirement income system was in place.
The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) statute permits provinces to opt out of the CPP if they develop a similar contributory program that provides retirement and supplementary benefits.
In 1966, Quebec introduced the Quebec Pension Plan as a sister program to the CPP. It has the same contributory scheme and provides retirement, disability and survivor benefits. Representatives of Quebec, the other provinces and the Government of Canada work together to ensure that all Canadian workers and their families are protected.
In 2000, Quebec paid $6 billion in benefits to about 1.3 million residents of the province.