Making Medicare:  The History of Health Care in Canada, 1914-2007 Timeline Timeline History Key Players Geography Costs and Benefits History: 1914 - 1929 History: 1914 - 1929 Key Players: 1914 - 1929 Geography: 1914 - 1929 Costs and Benefits: 1914 - 1929 History: 1930 - 1939 History: 1930 - 1939 Key Players: 1930 - 1939 Geography: 1930 - 1939 Costs and Benefits: 1930 - 1939 History: 1939 - 1948 History: 1939 - 1948 Key Players: 1939 - 1948 Geography: 1939 - 1948 Costs and Benefits: 1939 - 1948 History: 1948 - 1958 History: 1948 - 1958 Key Players: 1948 - 1958 Geography: 1948 - 1958 Costs and Benefits: 1948 - 1958 History: 1958 - 1968 History: 1958 - 1968 Key Players: 1958 - 1968 Geography: 1958 - 1968 Costs and Benefits: 1958 - 1968 History: 1968 - 1978 History: 1968 - 1978 Key Players: 1968 - 1978 Geography: 1968 - 1978 Costs and Benefits: 1968 - 1978 History: 1978 - 1988 History: 1978 - 1988 Key Players: 1978 - 1988 Geography: 1978 - 1988 Costs and Benefits: 1978 - 1988 History: 1989 - 2007 History: 1989 - 2007 Key Players: 1989 - 2007 Geography: 1989 - 2007 Costs and Benefits: 1989 - 2007


Compiled by Beatrice A. Orchard, M.A. and Stephen Alsford, M.Phil., M.L.I.S.

The purpose of this Webliography is to identify selected online resources helpful in understanding the origins and history of the publicly-funded and publicly-administered dimension of  Canada’s health care services, now known as medicare, together with current issues and perspectives related to the operation and possible future of medicare.  The first section of the Webliography focuses on Web sites that incorporate resources directly pertinent to medicare.  The second section identifies some key information resources for Canada’s health care system generally.  Brief annotations are included where helpful in understanding the type, scope, or pertinence of a resource.  This Webliography is not intended to be comprehensive, but effort has been made to include resources representing the diversity of perspectives and opinions related to the current debate on the future of medicare, in terms of the sustainability of government-subsidized health care versus the privatization of medical services.  Those interested are encouraged to pursue further research using Web search engines and directories of  resources;  as well, they should use the site search engines (where available) of Web sites listed below, to search on “medicare” or related subjects.

Section 1: Key sources of information on Medicare (history and current issues)

General and Reference

Canada’s Health Infrastructure: History
Brief overview and chronology, 1994-2004

The Canadian Encyclopedia: Health Policy

Medicare (Canada)

The Politics of Canada's Health Care System
An American review and assessment of the Canadian model

Contrary history: socialized medicine and Canada's decline
Article in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2007

Canadian Social Science Research Links: The Medicare Funding Debate in Canada

Health Economics
Index of articles published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal

A Women's Guide to Health Care Debates

Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association: Industry Information

Federal Government

Canada’s Health Care System (Medicare)

Health policy in Canada

Provincial and Territorial Governments

Newfoundland and Labrador Medical Care Plan

Nova Scotia Department of Health

Health Facilities Licensing and Equitable Access to Insured Services Act

Hospital and Medical Services Insurance on PEI

New Brunswick Department of Health: Medicare

Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec

Ontario Health Insurance Plan

Commitment to the Future of Medicare Act, 2004 (Ontario)

Manitoba Health

Manitoba Pharmacare Program

Government of Saskatchewan: Health Benefits

Government of Alberta: Health and Wellness

British Columbia Ministry of Health: Health Insurance

British Columbia Ministry of Health: Pharmacare

Northwest Territories Health Care Plan

Yukon Health and Social Services: Insured Health and Hearing Services

Nunavut Health Insurance Programs

Medical Associations, Health Advocacy Groups, and other Non-Profit Organizations

Canadian Medical Association Unveils Plan to Modernize Medicare

The CMA's Plan for Medicare Plus: What does the Evidence Say?

Canadian Doctors for Medicare

Alberta Friends of Medicare

The Council of Canadians: Health care

Canadian Health Coalition

Canadian Pharmacists Association: Pharmacare Position Statement (August 2004)

Canadian Physiotherapy Association Position Statements|K=222537|

Canadian Public Health Association's response to Romanow Report

Canadian Labour Congress: Health/Medicare

Tommy Douglas Research Institute
Monitors important developments in public health care, and provides information on Tommy Douglas

The Fraser Institute: Research Topics - Health

Atkinson Charitable Foundation: Partnerships for Medicare

Dialogue on Health Reform
Advocacy group supported by the Atkinson Charitable Foundation

Caledon Institute for Social Policy
Several papers on medicare can be found through the site search engine.

Health and Everything: Health care reform
Personal Web site of an educator

Religious Organizations

Canadian Council of Churches: Strengthening Public Health Care in Canada

United Church of Canada: Health Care

Catholic Health Alliance of Canada - Health Policy Issues

Media Sources

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Audio and video clips related to the history of medicare may be found at the following addresses:

CBC News Indepth: Health Care
Acts as a portal for CBC news items and related materials on the subject

CBC News Inquiry: Problems and Cures
Collection of news items and other materials related to the release of the Romanow Report

Medicare's Condition Critical
Article from Maclean’s Magazine (1995).  Other pertinent articles can be found by searching in the Maclean’s Articles section of the Canadian Encyclopedia.

Peel’s Prairie Provinces: Newspapers
Search across nine newspapers for “medicare” or related subjects.

Toronto Globe and Mail  (search on “medicare”)

Educational Resources

Canada’s Unique Social History: Social Work and Health Care

Medicare: A People's Issue
Virtual exhibition produced by the Saskatchewan Council of Archives and Archivists, 2004

Public Health Insurance Through History
Virtual exhibition produced by the McGill Institute for the Study of Canada

A Short History of Health Insurance in Canada
Article in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1944

The Check-Off: A precursor of medicare in Canada?
Article in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2005

Health Care in Canada
Brief review by Professor Brian Martin of the University of Wollongong, focusing on medicare-related issues

Manning Against Medicare
Article from Alberta History, 1995

Women and the Future of Medicare
Various documents published by the Ontario Health Coalition

World History Archives: Privatization vs. democracy in Canada

Recent reports, studies, and policy research

Paying For Physician Services In Canada: The Institutional, Historical and Policy Contexts
Institute of Health Economics working paper, 1999

Understanding Canada’s Health Care Costs
Final Report of the Provincial and Territorial Ministers of Health, August 2000

Action Plan for Saskatchewan Health Care (2001),94,88,Documents&

Caring for Medicare: Sustaining a Quality System
Report of the Saskatchewan Commission on Medicare, 2001

In Search of Sustainability: Prospects for Canada's Health Care System
Discussion paper published by the Canadian Medical Association, 2001

The future of health care in Canada
Article from the British Medical Journal, 2001

Options for Health Care Reform in Ontario
Ontario Hospital Association Research Series, 2001

Managing Medicare: The Prerequisite to Spending or Reform
Paper published by the C.D. Howe Institute, 2002

Better Medicine
Review article based on the 2002 publication Better Medicine: Reforming Canada’s Health Care and a series of related articles in the National Post

The Health of Canadians - The Federal Role
The Kirby Report, 2002

Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada
The Romanow Report and related documentation, 2003

Canadian Health Services Research Foundation Publications
Discussion papers submitted to the Romanow Commission and papers on key issues in the commission’s final report

Payments for care at private for-profit and private not-for-profit hospitals: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Article published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2004

Healing with Dollars and Sense: The Ethics of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health Care Decision Making
Workshop report, 2004

Sustainable Financing, Funding and Resource Allocation in Health Care: Options, Impacts and Public Expectations
Invitation for research proposals, issued by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (ca.2004); includes a review of the issues

Access to Care, Access to Justice: The Legal Debate over Private Health Insurance in Canada
Conference report, 2005

In Search of a Mandate? The Supreme Court’s Decision on Chaoulli v. Attorney General of Quebec
Paper presented by Roy Romanow to the Access to Care, Access to Justice conference, 2005

The Effects of De-listing Publicly Funded Health Care Services
Study conducted for the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, 2005

Letting the Market Save Medicare
Collection of papers published in the Fraser Forum, 2005

The Pains of Privatization: How Contracting Out Hurts Health Support Workers, Their Families, and Health Care
Published by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2005

Future Health and Medical Care Spending of the Elderly: Implications for Medicare
Published by The Rand Corporation, 2005

A Strong Publicly-Funded Health System: Keeping Canadians Healthy and Securing Our Place in s Competitive World
Brief submitted to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance by the Canadian Healthcare Association, 2006

Access to Doctors. Access to Care
Position paper produced by the Alberta Medical Association, 2006

Physicians Speak Up: BC Conversation on Health submission
Position paper produced by the British Columbia Medical Association, 2007

How Sustainable is Medicare? A Closer Look at Aging, Technology and Other Cost Drivers in Canada’s Health Care System
Published by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2007

Financing the Future III - Healthcare Payment: Goals, Trends, and Strategies
Published by the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 2007

Canadian Perceptions of the Health Care System
Study by Stuart Soroka of McGill University for the Health Council of Canada, 2007

Moving Medicare Forward
Collection of papers published in the Fraser Forum, 2007

Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis: Working Paper Series

Canadian Medical Association Leadership Series: Primary Care Reform
Collection of undated articles

Section 2: Other useful resources on the history and present status of health care in Canada

General and Reference

A profile of Health in Canada

The Canadian Encyclopedia: Health and Medicine

Sacred Trust or Political Football? A Citizen's Guide to Canadian Health Care

Understanding Health Care

Health Care in Canada Survey (1999-2003)

Canadian Information By Subject: Social problems and services - Medical care

Population Health Research Unit: Concept Dictionary
Produced by Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine

Health Spending - Macro Spending
Data provided by the Canadian Institute for Health Information

World in Your Pocket: A Handbook of International Health Economic Statistics

Canadian Medical Association Journal

Canadian Journal of Public Health: Index of Articles

Federal Government

Health Canada

Public Health Agency of Canada

Health Council of Canada

Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Parliament of Canada
Includes records of Commons debates since 1997 and biographies of past M.P.s (supporters and opponents of medicare)

Provincial and Territorial Governments

Newfoundland and Labrador: Health and Community Services

Nova Scotia Department of Health

InfoPEI: Health and Wellness

New Brunswick Department of Health

Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec

Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care

Ontario Joint Policy and Planning Committee
Concerned with hospital reform.

Manitoba Health

Saskatchewan Health

Alberta Health and Wellness

British Columbia Ministry of Health

Northwest Territories Health and Social Programs

Yukon Health and Social Services

Nunavut Health and Social Services

Medical Associations, Health Advocacy Groups, and other Non-Profit Organizations

Canadian Medical Association

Canadian Nurses Association

Canadian Healthcare Association: Policy and Advocacy

Ontario Health Coalition

Alberta Medical Association

British Columbia Medical Association

Provincial Health Ethics Network of Alberta

Shaping Our Future 2006-2010: An Updated Strategic Plan for Health and Wellness in the Northwest Territories

Medical Reform Group

Canadian Women’s Health Network

Health Charities Coalition of Canada

Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association

VOICE in health policy: Voluntary organizations involved in collaborative engagement

Museums and commemorative centres

Museum of Health Care at Kingston

Canadian Medical Hall of Fame

McCord Museum of Canadian History
Collections searches on “medicare” and “health care”:

Educational Resources

Canadian Medicine: Doctors and Discoveries

Saskatchewan's Health Care System

Alberta Medical History Collection
Includes photographs, journals, books, web links, and profiles of important figures

Cures and Quackery: The Rise of Patent Medicines

Last Resort: Hospital Care in Canada

Pioneers in Sickness and in Health
Article from Alberta History, 2001

Prepared to care: Nurses and nursing in Alberta, 1859 to 1996
Digitized book, published 1998

Getting Better – 20th century hospital health care in Canada
Virtual exhibition produced by the Canada Science and Technology Museum and University Health Network

One Hundred Years of Caregiving
Paper prepared for the Law Commission of Canada, 2001, illustrating how care demands and issues have increasingly been transferred to the Canadian home

Centres of Excellence for Women's Health - Research Bulletin

Recent reports, studies, and policy research

Report of the fact finder on the issue of Small/Rural Hospital Emergency Department Physician Service
Commissioned by the Ontario Ministry of Health, 1995

National Forum on Health, 1994 to 1997

Health Services Restructuring Commission (Ontario) 1996-2000

A Framework for Reform: Report of the Premier’s Advisory Council on Health for Alberta (2001)

Premier’s Advisory Council on Health releases comprehensive report on health reform

Report of the Premier’s Advisory Council on Health (Alberta) -- an overview

Health Care in Canada, 2001
Published by the Canadian Institute for Health Information

Personal Security Indicators 2003: Health Security
Produced by the Canadian Council on Social Development

Income Inequality, Household Income, and Health Status in Canada: A Prospective Cohort Study
Paper in the American Journal of Public Health, 2003

Concentrated poverty in urban Canada: health issues for consideration
University of Calgary Centre for Health and Policy Studies research and policy brief, 2003

The Taming Of The Queue: Toward A Cure For Health Care Wait Times
Canadian Medical Association discussion paper, 2004

Policy Paper on Regionalization: Recommended Strategies
Produced by the Society of Rural Physicians of Canada, 2004

First Ministers' Meeting on the Future of Health Care 2004

Comparing Health in the US and Canada: Low Income Groups Are Less Disadvantaged in the Frozen North
Institute of Health Economics working paper, 2005

Electronic Health Records: advancing Canada’s next generation of healthcare
Vision statement issued by Canada Health Infoway, ca.2006

Directions for Canadian Health Care
Proceedings of a series of conferences developed by Merck Frosst Canada Ltd., 1998-2004

Health and Health Human Resources
Online publications of the Canadian Policy Research Networks

Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research: Publications

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    Date Created: March 31, 2010 | Last Updated: April 21, 2010