Early Ranching

... It is further agreed between Her Majesty and the said Indians that the following articles shall be supplied to any band of the said Indians who are now cultivating the soil, or who shall here after commence to cultivate the land that is to say four hœs for every family actually cultivating; also, two spades per family as aforesaid; one plow for every three families as aforesaid; one harrow for every three families as aforesaid; two scythes and one whetstone, and two hay forks and two reaping hooks, for every family as aforesaid, and also two axes; ... also for each band enough of wheat, barley, potatœs and oats to plant the land actually broken up for cultivation by such band; also for each band four oxen, one bull and six cows; also one boar and two sows, and one hand mill when any band shall raise sufficient grain there after...

Treaty No. 6 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Plain and Wood Cree Indians and other tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with adhesions. 1876.

Native rancher with his two oxen
Saskatchewan, late 1800s
Manitoba Museum 13158

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