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Canada and Submarine Warfare, 1909-1950 – Page 7

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  1. An early draft of this paper was presented at the ‘The Undersea Dimension of Maritime Strategy’ conference, organized by the Dalhousie University Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, in Halifax, June 1989. For summary proceedings see Dan W. Middlemiss, Fred W. Crickard and Susan J. Rolston, eds., The Undersea Dimension of Maritime Strategy: A Conference Report (Halifax 1991).
    For sharing their research and ideas, I am grateful to Michael L. Hadley, Marc Milner, Jurgen Rohwer, Donald M. Schurman, David Zimmerman and my colleagues at the Directorate of History: W.A.B. Douglas, Norman Hillmer, Catherine Allan, Donald E. Graves, Steve Harris, Jane Samson and Michael Whitby. In the present version of the paper, the first to be published, I have updated the references to reflect work that has appeared done since 1989.

  2. Surveys of the literature include W.A.B. Douglas, ‘Canadian Naval Historiography,’ Mariner’s Mirror 70 (Nov. 1984): 349-62; ____,’ The Prospects for Naval History,’ The Northern Mariner 1 (Oct. 1991): 19-26; ___, ‘The Canadian Experience of Sea Power,’ in Naval Power in the Twentieth Century, N.A.M. Rodger, ed. (Houndmills, UK 1996), 188-99; Roger Sarty and Donald M. Schurman, ‘An Historical Perspective on Canadian Naval Policy,’ Argonauta 4 (31 March 1987): 6-13; Marc Milner, ‘Royal Canadian Navy Participation in the Battle of the Atlantic Crisis of 1943’ RCN in Retrospect, 1910-1968, ed. James A. Boutilier (Vancouver 1982), 158-74; ____, ‘The Historiography of the Canadian Navy: The State of the Art,’ A Nation’s Navy: In Quest of Canadian Naval Identity, Michael L. Hadley, Rob Huebert and F.W. Crickard, eds. (Montreal and Kingston 1996), 23-34. See also Tony German, The Sea is at Our Gates: The History of the Canadian Navy (Toronto 1990), a popular account that accurately draws on recent scholarship.

  3. Thomas Richard Melville, ‘Canada and Sea Power: Canadian Naval Thought and Policy, 1860-1910’ (PHD thesis, Duke University, 1981), ch. 8.

  4. Neville Meany, A History of Australian Defence and Foreign Policy 1901-1923. Vol. 1: The Search for Security in the Pacific, 1901-1914 (Sydney 1976), chaps 5-6; John Bach, The Australia Station: A History of the Royal Navy in the South West Pacific 1821-1913 (Kensington 1986), chap. 13.

  5. Ruddock F. Mackay, Fisher of Kilverstone (Oxford 1973); Nicholas A. Lambert, ‘Admiral Sir John Fisher and the Concept of Flotilla Defence, 1904-1909,’ Journal of Military History 59 (Oct. 1995), 639-60.

  6. Hadley and Sarty, Tin Pots and Pirate Ships, 12-29; for a more positive view of Laurier’s naval policy, Nigel D. Brodeur, ‘L.P. Brodeur and the Origins of the Royal Canadian Navy,’ RCN in Retrospect, 13-32 R.H. Gimblett, ‘From Militia to Navy: Reassessing the Origins of the Naval Service in Canada,’Maritime Warfare Bulletin. Special Historical Edition: Maritime Command Historical Conference 1990. Canada’s Navy: Continuity or Change [1991?]: 32-48; ____, ‘Reassessing the Dreadnought Crisis of 1909 and the Origins of the Royal Canadian Navy,’ The Northern Mariner 4 (Jan. 1994): 35-53.

  7. Donald C. Gordon, The Dominion Partnership in Imperial Defense 1870-1914 (Baltimore 1965), 236-7; Rhodri Williams, Defending the Empire: The Conservative Party and British Defence Policy, 1899-1915 (New Haven, Ct. 1991), chap. 11.

  8. Hadley and Sarty, Tin-Pots and Pirate Ships, 60-2.

  9. Tucker, Naval Service, 1, chaps10-12.

  10. Borden to Perley, 7 Oct. 1914, Perley to Borden, 10 Oct. 1914, printed in Tucker, Naval Service, 1, 218-9.

  11. Tucker, Naval Service, 1, chap. 13. See also two important recent accounts: Dave Perkins, Canada’s Submariners 1914-23 (Erin, Ont. 1989), chaps. 1-3; Julie H. Ferguson, Through a Canadian Periscope: The Story of the Canadian Submarine Service (Toronto 1995), chaps. 1-3.

  12. Kingsmill to Governor-General’s military secretary, 30 April 1915, NS 1017-11-2, National Archives of Canada [hereafter, NA], RG 24, vol. 3846; Gaddis Smith, Britain’s Clandestine Submarines 1914-1915 (New Haven, Ct. 1964); see also J.D. Perkins, ‘Canadian Vickers-Built H Class Submarines of the Royal Navy, Part I,’ Warship 47 (July 1988), 2-9; ____, Canada’s Submariners, chaps 4-5; Ferguson, Canadian Periscope, chap 4.

  13. Admiralty, memorandum M-03496, 13 Nov. 1914, ‘European War Prints,’ vol. I, no. 5, 560-1, National Defence Headquarters, Directorate of History [hereafter, DHist]; Great Britain, Admiralty, Naval Staff, Naval Staff Monographs (Historical). Vol. IX. Home Waters — Part II. September and October 1914 (OU 5528A) (np 1924), 124-35.

  14. Phipps-Hornby to Kingsmill, 8 Jan. 1915, NS 1001-19-4, NA, RG 24, vol. 6197; Naval Historical Section [hereafter, NHS], ‘Ships and Vessels of the RCN on the Atlantic Coast in the Great War 1914-1918,’ 17 July 1963, DHist.

  15. Consul General at New York, memorandum, forwarded by Colonial Office to Governor-General, 10 June 1915, see also Consul General at New York to Governor-General, telegram, 11 June 1915, HQC 1686 pt 1, NA, RG 24, vol. 2532; Colonial Office to Governor-General, telegram, 9 June 1915, European War Prints, vol. II, no. 12, 133-4, DHist.

  16. Patey to Admiralty, 3 June and 19 July 1915, Great Britain, Public Record Office [hereafter PRO], Admiralty records [hereafter, ADM] 116/1400; G.J. Desbarats diary, 29 June, 1 and 14 July 1915, NA, G.J. Desbarats papers, MG 30 E89, vol. 5.

  17. Kingsmill, memorandum, 10 Aug. 1915, Kingsmill to minister, 11 Aug. 1915, Kingsmill to deputy minister, 28 Sept. 1915, NS 1062-13-4, NA, RG 24, vol. 4022.

  18. This and the following paragraphs are based on Hadley and Sarty, Tin-Pots and Pirate Ships, chaps. 7-11 and ‘Hard Luck Flotilla: The RCN’s Atlantic Coast Patrol, 1914-18,’in RCN in Transition 1910-1985, ed. W.A.B. Douglas (Vancouver 1988), 103-25.

  19. Hadley and Sarty, Tin Pots and Pirate Ships, 258-9, 264, 294-5.

  20. S.F. Wise, Canadian Airmen and the First World War: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force Vol. 1 ([Toronto] 1980), 603-8. For another example of an initiative strongly supported by Borden late in the First World War to strengthen Canadian maritime sovereignty see Kenneth S. Mackenzie, ‘C.C. Ballantyne and the Canadian Government Merchant Marine, 1917-1921,’ The Northern Mariner 2 (Jan. 1992): 1-14.

  21. Roger Sarty, ‘The Naval Side of Canadian Sovereignty, 1909-1923,’ printed in the present volume.

  22. Hadley and Sarty, Tin-Pots and Pirate Ships, 301-2; James Eayrs, In Defence of Canada: From the Great War to the Great Depression (Toronto 1965), 162-4.

  23. On the RCN and the transition to peace, 1919-1923, see William H. Tatley, ‘The Jellicoe Misson to Canada and Imperial Naval Defence, 1919-1923’ (MA thesis, University of Guelph, 1974); Barry D. Hunt, ‘The Road to Washington: Canada and Empire Naval Defence, 1918-21,’ RCN in Retrospect, 44-61; Eayrs, Great War to Depression, chap. 4; William J. McAndrew, ‘The Evolution of Canadian Aviaton Policy Following the First World War,’ Journal of Canadian Studies 16 (Fall-Winter 1981): 86-99.

  24. HQC 430-12-228 pt 1, NA, RG 24, vol. 2427; Kingsmill to Captain of Patrols, 8 Aug. 1918, extracts from G. 47-19-8, DHist 81/520/1440-6 ‘Halifax, NS, 1905-1920.’

  25. Roger Sarty, ‘The Naval Side of Canadian Sovereignty, 1909-1923,’ printed in the present volume; R. Mckillop, ‘Staying on the Sleigh: Commodore Walter Hose and a Permanent Naval Policy for Canada,’ Maritime Warfare Bulletin. Special Historical Edition: Maritime Command Historical Conference 1990. Canada’s Navy: Continuity or Change [1991?]: 67-82.

  26. Roger Sarty, ‘”Entirely in the hands of the friendly neighbour:” The Canadian Armed Forces and the Defence of the West Coast, 1919-1939,’ printed in the present volume.

  27. Roger Sarty, ‘Mr King and the Armed Forces: Rearmament and Mobilization, 1937-1939,’ printed in the present volume.

  28. Eg, Hose to minister, 30 Jul 1926, NSC 1015-2-3 pt 1, RG 24, vol.3828; same to same, 25 Oct. 1927, G.J. Desbarats papers, file C, DHist.

  29. Hose to minister, 14 March 1928, NSC 1017-10-11 pt 1, NAC, RG 24, vol. 3824

  30. Stephen W. Roskill, Naval Policy Between the Wars. Vol. 1: The Period of Anglo-American Antagonism 1919-1929 (London 1968), 345-7, 535-7, 557; ___, Naval Policy Between the Wars. Vol. 2: The Period of Reluctant Rearmament 1930-1939 (London 1976), 226-9, 355-6; Arthur J. Marder, ‘Lessons of History,’ in From the Dardanelles to Oran: Studies of the Royal Navy in War and Peace (London 1970), 33-48; David Henry, ‘British Submarine Policy, 1918-1939,’ in Technical Change and British Naval Policy, 80-107; Nelles, ‘Defence of Trade,’ 12 Feb. 1937, file D-26, NA, I.A. Mackenzie papers, MG 27 IIIB5, vol. 37.

  31. Michael Whitby, ‘In Defence of Home Waters: Doctrine and training in the Canadian navy during the 1930s,’ The Mariner’s Mirror 77 (May 1991): 167-77.

  32. Joint Staff Committee, ‘A Review of Canada’s Position with Respect to Defence, July 1938,’ 22 July 1938, HQS 5199B, NA, RG 24, vol. 2693; Nelles, ‘Objective of the Canadian Naval Service,’ 17 Jan. 1939, NHS 1650-1 ‘Policy,’ pt 1, DHist; Naval Intelligence and Plans Division, ‘Canadian Naval Defence on Atlantic Coast,’ 2 May 1939, NHS 1650-1 ‘War Book,’ DHist; Lane to Godfrey, 10 May 1939, DHist 81/520/1440-5 vol. 14, pt 3; Michael Whitby, ‘Instruments of Security: The Royal Canadian Navy’s Procurement of the Tribal-Class Destroyers, 1938-1943,’ 2 The Northern Mariner, (July 1992): 1-15.

  33. PRO, ADM 1/9488; also see PRO, ADM 116/3802, esp. Meyrick to ‘My dear Roger,’ 14 Oct. 1938 and King to Meyrick, 17 Oct. 1938.

  34. W.A.B. Douglas, The Creation of a National Air Force: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force Volume II ([Toronto] 1986), 373-80; William J. McAndrew, ‘Canadian Defence Planning Between the Wars: The Royal Canadian Air Force Comes of Age,’ Aerospace Historian 29 (June 1982): 81-9; ‘The History of Eastern Air Command,’ vol. 1, pts 1-2, DHist 74/2.

  35. The best printed sources for U-boat operations are: Admiralty, Tactical and Staff Duties Division, Ministry of Defence, Naval Historical Branch, The U-Boat War in the Atlantic, 1939-May 1945 (German Naval History Series)(BR 305)(3 vols.: London 1950-77); Jurgen Rohwer, Axis Submarine Successes 1939-1945 (Annapolis, Md. 1983); ____ and G. Hummelchen, Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939-1945 (2 vols. London 1974)

  36. On control of shipping see Naval Service Headquarters, ‘Outline History of Trade Division 1939-1945,’ copy in DHist 81/520/8280B pt 2; Gilbert Norman Tucker, The Naval Service of Canada: Its Official History. Vol. II: Activities on Shore During the Second World War (Ottawa 1952), chaps. 12-13.

  37. Nelles to minister, ‘Review of the Naval Requirements of Canada and the Existing Situation, 29th September, 1939,’ NHS 1650-1 ‘Policy’ pt 1, DHist; Dreyer to Nelles, 27 Jan. 1940, Dreyer to Secretary of the Admiralty, 31 Jan 1940 and 12 Feb. 1940, PRO, ADM 1/10608.

  38. Eg, Cabinet War Committee minutes, 8 Dec. 1939, NA, William Lyon Mackenzie King papers, MG 26 J4, vol. 423, C302580-5; King diary, 8 Dec. 1939, NA, MG 26 J13.

  39. On shipbuilding and ship acquisition see Tucker, Naval Service of Canada, 2, chaps. 2-3; Michael A. Hennessy, ‘The Rise and Fall of a Canadian Maritime Policy, 1939-1965’ (PHD thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1995), esp. Chap. 3; ‘History of the British Admiralty Technical Mission in Canada,’ 30 April 1946, copy at DHist. On the design and service of the Canadian corvettes see Ken Macpherson and Marc Milner, Corvettes of the Royal Canadian Navy 1939-1945 (St Catharines, Ont. 1993); for further technical details, John McKay and John Harland, Anatomy of the Ship: The Flower Class Corvette Agassiz (St Catharines, Ont. 1993).

  40. Nelles to acting deputy minister (naval and air), 30 Oct. 1939, HQS 8215 pt 1, NA, RG 24, vol. 2826.

  41. [L.E. McGuillicuddy], ‘Narrative A, Pt 1: R.C.N. Operations in United Kingdom Waters — May 1940 to June 1941,’ 19 Dec. 1944, DHist 84/123. This was one of the narative accounts prepared by the naval historians during the war upon which was based Joseph Schull, The Far Distant Ships: An Official Account of Canadian Naval Operations in the Second World War (Ottawa 1961).This is a beautifully writtern and generally dependable book but, owing to reductions in the historical staff, is unanalytical and based on little more than the wartime narratives.

  42. U-Boat War, 1, 48-53; Admiralty, Historical Section, Defeat of the Enemy Attack on Shipping 1939-1945: A Study of Plans and Operations. Vol. 1B: (Plans and Tables) (BR 1736 (51))(Naval Staff History Second World War)(London 1957), table 13.

  43. ‘Summary of Naval War Effort 1 October-31 December 1941,’ NSS 1000-5-8 pt 2, DHist.

  44. Bernard Ransom, ‘Canada’s “Newfyjohn” Tenancy: The Royal Canadian Navy in St John’s, 1941-1945,’ Acadiensis 23 (Spring 1994), 45-71. The experience of seamen in the Battle of the Atlantic can best be captured from memoirs. Alan Easton, 50 North: Canada’s Atlantic Battleground (Toronto 1963) is one of the best to be produced in any nation. Important recent publications include Frank Curry, War at Sea: A Canadian Seaman on the North Atlantic (Toronto 1990); Mac Johnston, Corvettes Canada: Convoy veterans of WWII tell their true stories (Toronto 1994); [J.A.M. Lynch, ed], Salty Dips Vol. 2: ‘…and All Our Joints Were Limber‘ (Ottawa 1985).

  45. On the RCN’s training, tactical and equipment problems, particularly as they affected mid-ocean operations in 1941-3, see Marc Milner, North Atlantic Run: The Royal Canadian Navy and the Battle for the Convoys (Toronto 1985); ______, ‘Convoy Escorts: Tactics, Technology and Innovation in the Royal Canadian Navy, 1939-1943,’ Military Affairs 48 (Jan. 1984): 19-25; David Zimmerman, The Great Naval Battle of Ottawa (Toronto 1989); ____, ‘The Royal Canadian Navy and the National Research Council, 1939-45,’ 69 Canadian Historical Review 69 (June 1988): 203-221; William R. Glover, ‘Manning and Training the Allied Navies’ in The Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945: The 50th Anniversary International Naval Conference, ed. Stephen Howarth and Derek Law (London and Annapolis Md. 1994), 188-213.On British radar developments that are critical to the Canadian story there is now available Derek Howse, Radar at Sea: The Royal Navy in World War 2 (Annapolis, Md. 1993), and on sonar, Willem Heckmann, Seek and Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54 (London 1984).

  46. On the United States Navy and the Battle of the Atlantic see Samuel Eliot Morison, The Battle of the Atlantic September 1939-May 1943 (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. I)(Boston 1947); Patrick Abbazia, Mr. Roosevelt’s Navy: The Private War of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, 1939-1942 (Annapolis, Md. 1975); Waldo Heinrichs, ‘President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Intervention in the Battle of the Atlantic, 1941,’ 10 Diplomatic History (Fall 1986): 311-32.

  47. The best general accounts of intelligence in the Battle of the Atlantic are F.H. Hinsley, British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations (3 vols. in 4 pts: Cambridge 1979-88); Patrick Beesly, Very Special Intelligence: The Story of the Admiralty’s Operational Intelligence Centre 1939-1945 (London 1977). See also David Kahn, Seizing the Enigma: the Race to Break the German U-boat Codes, 1939-1943 (Boston 1991); Bradley F. Smith, The Ultra-Magic Deals and the Most Secret Special Relationship, 1940-1946 (Novato, Cal.1993). On Canadian aspects see John Bryden, Best Kept Secret: Canadian Secret Intelligence in the Second World War (Toronto 1993) and especially Catherine E. Allan, ‘Building a Canadian Naval Operational Intelligence Centre 1939-1943’ in A Nation’s Navy, 157-72.

  48. Milner, North Atlantic Run, 64-76, 82-3; W.A.B. Douglas and Jurgen Rohwer, ‘”The Most Thankless Task” Revisited: Convoys, Escorts, and Radio Intelligence in the Western Atlantic, 1941-43,’ RCN in Retrospect, 187-207; Admiralty, Historical Section, Home Waters and the Atlantic, Vol. 2: 9th April 1940–6th December 1941 (Naval Staff History Second World War)(BR 1736(48)(2))([London] 1961), 313-5.

  49. Michael L. Hadley, U-Boats against Canada: German Submarines in Canadian Waters (Kingston and Montreal 1985) and _____, ‘Inshore ASW in the Second World War: The U-boat Experience,’ RCN in Transition, 126-42 are the best sources on U-boat operations in the north-west Atlantic, 1942-5.

  50. Robert W. Love, Jr., ‘The US Navy and Operation Roll of Drums, 1942,’ in To Die Gallantly: The Battle of the Atlantic, ed. Timothy J. Runyan and Jan M. Copes (Boulder, Col. 1994), 94-120.

  51. Robert C. Fisher, ‘”We’ll get our own”: Canada and the Oil Shipping Crisis of 1942,’ The Northern Mariner 3 (April 1993): 33-9.

  52. C.P. Stacey, Arms, Men and Government: The War Policies of Canada 1939-1945 (Ottawa 1970), 47-8; Douglas, Creation of a National Air Force, 354-5; King diary, 9 Sept. 1942, NA, MG 26 J13.

  53. On the Gulf of St. Lawrence see Douglas, Creation of a National Air Force, chap. 13; Robert Hall Thomas, ‘The Absolute Necessity: The Naval Defence of Trade in the St. Lawrence 1939-45’ (MA thesis, Royal Military College of Canada, 1983).

  54. Robert C. Fisher, ‘Return of the Wolf Packs: The Battle for ON 113, 23-31 July 1942,’ The American Neptune 56 (winter 1996): 45-62.

  55. Milner, North Atlantic Run, 177-80, 189-92; Douglas and Rohwer, ‘The Most Thankless Task,’ 207-234. More generally see Jurgen Rohwer, The Critical Convoy Battles of March 1943 (London 1977); David Syrett, The Defeat of the German U-Boats: The Battle of the Atlantic (Columbia, SC 1994).

  56. Shawn Cafferky, ‘”A useful lot, these Canadian ships”: The Royal Canadian Navy and Operattion Torch, 1942-1943,’ The Northern Mariner 3 (Oct. 1993): 1-17.

  57. W.G.D. Lund, ‘The Royal Canadian Navy’s Quest for Autonomy in the North West Atlantic,’ RCN in Retrospect, 138-57; Milner, North Atlantic Run, 189, 230-4; Plans Division, ‘History of North Atlantic Convoy Escort Organization and Canadian Participation Therein, September, 1939 to April, 1943,’ 1 May 1943, copy in DHist 81/520/8280A is an incisive summary.

  58. On the RCN’s principal anti-submarine forces in 1943-1945 see Marc Milner, The U-Boat Hunters: The Royal Canadian Navy and the Offensive against German’s Submarines (Toronto 1994).

  59. On the problem of the air gap see W.A.B. Douglas and David Syrett, ‘Die Wende in der Schlacht im Atlantik: DieSchliessung des “Gronland-Luftlochs” 1942-3,’ 83 Marine Rundschau (1986): 2-11, 70-3, 147-9.

  60. Jurgen Rohwer and W.A.B. Douglas, ‘Canada and the Wolf Packs, September 1943,’ RCN in Transition, 159-86.

  61. The figures on U-boats destroyed are drawn from the complete listing of German and Italian U-boats destroyed in Admiralty, Historical Section, The Defeat of the Enemy Attack on Shipping, 1939-1945: A Study of Policy and Operations. Vol. 1A: (Text and Appendices) (Naval Staff History Second World War) (BR 1736(51)) (London 1957), 251-81, and have been adjusted in accordance with recent investigations in German sources by Mr R.M. Coppock of the Naval Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence, London, and Dr Axel Niestlé of Berlin, who have been extraordinarily generous in sharing their work with Canadian researchers. On the RCAF squadrons in RAF Coastal Command see Douglas, Creation of a National Air Force, 581-9; Brereton Greenhous, Stephen Harris, William Johnston and William GP Rawling, Crucible of War: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Vol. 3 ([Toronto] 1994), chaps. 11-13.

  62. For a detailed record of these decisions see Hodgson, ‘The First Year of Canadian Operational Control in the Northwest Atlantic,’ 18 Aug. 1944, file 8280A pt 1, DHist 81/520/8280 box 1.

  63. Douglas M. McLean, ‘Confronting Technological and Tactical Change: Allied Antisubmarine Warfare in the last year of the Battle of the Atlantic,’ Naval War College Review 47 (Winter 1994): 87-104.

  64. Ralph Erskine, ‘Naval Enigma: The Breaking of Heimisch and Triton,’ Intelligence and National Security 3 (Jan. 1988): 162-83.

  65. Roger Sarty, ‘The Royal Canadian Air Force, Naval Intelligence and the Anti-submarine War in the North-west Atlantic, 1943-1945,’printed in the present volume.

  66. Roger Sarty, ‘Ultra, Air Power, and the Second Battle of the St. Lawrence, 1944,’ To Die Gallantly, 186-209.

  67. Michael Hadley, ‘U-Boot-Begegnung vor Halifax: Die Versenkung von HMCS ClayoquotMarine Rundschau (1982); Doug McLean, ‘The Loss of HMCS Clayoquot,’Canadian Military History 3 (Fall 1994): 31-44; ____, ‘The Battle of Convoy BX-141,’ The Northern Mariner 3 (Oct. 1993): 19-35.

  68. Douglas, Creation of a National Air Force, 547-9, 557-8.

  69. ‘RCN Weekly States,’ 9 Jan. 1945, NHS 1650-DS, DHist.

  70. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Atlantic Battle Won May 1943-May 1945 (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II Vol. X) (Boston 1956) and William T. Y’Blood, Hunter-Killer: U.S. Escort Carriers in the Battle of the Atlantic (Annapolis, Md. 1983) deal with the principal operations.

  71. Zimmerman, Great Naval Battle, chaps. 9-12; Milner, U-boat Hunters, 122-6, 263.

  72. W.A.B. Douglas, ‘Conflict and Innovation in the Royal Canadian Navy, 1939-1945,’ in Naval Warfare in the 20th Century: Essays in Honour of Arthur Marder, ed. Gerald Jordan (London 1977), 210-32; Tucker, Naval Service of Canada, 2, chap. 4; J.D.F. Kealy and E.C. Russell, A History of Canadian Naval Aviation 1918-1962 (Ottawa 1965), chaps. 3-4

  73. James Eayrs, In Defence of Canada: Peacemaking and Deterrence (Toronto 1972), 96-7; Stacey, Arms, Men and Governments, 58-60

  74. Extracts from NSS 1650-26 pt 1, NHS 1650-1 ‘Policy,’ DHist.

  75. Operational Intelligence Centre, Special Intelligence Summary, weeks ending 7 Aug. 1944, 6 Nov. 1944, PRO, ADM 223/21; Eberhard Rossler, The U-Boat: The Evolution and Technical History of German Submarines (Annapolis, Md. 1981), 214-34, 240-6, 248-65.

  76. Naval Service Headquarters to Admiralty, signal 1720Z 6 April 1945, NHS 1650-239/16B pt 2, DHist.

  77. Naval Service Headquarters to Canadian Naval Mission Overseas, signal, 14 Sept. 1945, Canadian Naval Mission Overseas to Naval Service Headquarters, signal, 27 Sept. 1945, extracts from NSS 1650-26, pt 1, NHS 1650-1 ‘Policy,’ DHist.

  78. ‘Russia’s Future as a Naval Power,’ Royal Canadian Navy Monthly Review (May 1947): 20-2.

  79. Henry and Curtis, ‘Report of Proceedings at Washington, D.C., 20-23 May 1946,’ 23 May 1946, with enclosures, printed in Donald M. Page, ed., Documents on Canadian External Relations. Vol. 12: 1946, (Ottawa 1977), 1615-27.

  80. Eg., Canada-United States Military Co-operation Committee, ‘Programme for Implementation Measures for Period from 1st April 1948 to 30th June 1949,’ 25 July 1947, ‘Sea Lines of Communication’ appendices, DHist 112.3M2.009 (D106) pt 1.

  81. Storrs to assistant chief of the naval staff, 17 Jan. 1947, extracts from NSS 1650-26 pt 2, NHS 1650-1 ‘Policy,’ DHist.

  82. Naval Board minutes 229-2/ 23 Oct. 1947, 230-6/ 30 Oct. 1947, 247-6/ 4 May 1948, 257-3/23 Aug. 1948, 264-2/ 27 Oct. 1948, 271-7/ 15 Dec. 1948, 294-5/ 31 Aug. 1949, DHist.

  83. S. Mathwin Davis, ‘The St Laurent decision: Genesis of a Canadian Fleet’ in RCN in Transition, 187-208. In addition to this pioneering account there is now Michael A. Hennessy, ‘The State as Innovator: Controlling the command technology for warship construction in Canada, 1949-1965,’ in Canadian Papers in Business History, ed. Peter A. Baskerville (Victoria, BC 1993), 147-77, and, for fuller context, Hennesy, ‘The Rise and Fall of a Canadian Maritime Policy,’ chaps. 6-8.

  84. Naval Board minutes 240-11/ 25 Feb. 1948, 293-4/ 20 July 1949, DHist. On the influence of anti-submarine warfare on the development of Canadian naval aviation see Michael Shawn Cafferky, ‘Uncharted Waters: The Development of the Helicopter Carrying Destroyer in the Post-War Royal Canadian Navy, 1943-1964’ (PHD thesis, Carleton University, 1996).

  85. RCAF Post War Plans, B, E and F, DHist 181.004(D44-46).

  86. Operations record books, 10 Group/Maritime Group, 103 Rescue Unit, 1948-1950, DHist.

  87. Davis, ‘St Laurent Decision’; Joel J. Sokolsky, ‘Canada and the Cold War at Sea, 1945-68’ in RCN in Transition, 209-32; Sean M. Maloney, Securing Command of the Sea: NATO Naval Planning, 1948-1954 (Annapolis, Md. 1995).

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