abour did not disappear from the Canadian social landscape as some pundits had predicted. Nevertheless, the struggle to survive and revive the movement was neither simple nor easy. As the depression receded at the end of the century, employment improved but record numbers of Canadians remained without jobs. Thus, while the improving economy made it easier to resist further concessions, much of what had already been lost was not regained. Resisting concessions had an interesting result on international unionism in Canada. Since the late 1960s, Canadian members of international unions had been assuming greater autonomy over the affairs of these unions. The weakening of unions in the United States during the 1980s led to the acceleration of the Canadianization movement as Canadian workers sought to shore up their own position in Canada. The most celebrated case occurred in 1985 when Canadian members of the United Auto Workers of America withdrew to create the Canadian Auto Workers Union. However, Canadianization did not mean isolationism. In fact, the completion of the North America Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and the United States, and the globalization of the world economy impressed on the labour movement the need for international co-operation. The first craft unions, the Knights of Labor, the 1919 Revolt, and the CIO's industrial unionism were workers' new visions for their movements in times of crises. The future will tell if greater international co-operation heralds the dawn of yet another era in the history of the labour movement.

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