PART TWO – ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES WITH WELL-PRESERVED ARTIFACTS OR COSMOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Cosmology and Monumental and Semalithic Archaeological Sites
During the Late Archaic period in the eastern woodlands of Canada cosmology was expressed through monumental effigy earthworks and paraphernalia of the Adena-Hopewell burial cult such as blocked-end tubular pipes, platform effigy pipes, ‘boat stones’, and ‘barstones’ – all works of art and ritual, fashioned from polished, lustrous, stone. Cosmological stone features – including medicine wheels, cairns, and buffalo stones – were built throughout the Canadian plains. They are examples of early memorials and were used for vision quests, rituals associated with the heavenly bodies. In parts of the Arctic, certain inuksuit (standing stone objects that act in the capacity of a human) are venerated, or are related to places of power in the spiritual landscape (Hallendy 1992) (Figure 13).
|Figure 13: An Inukshuk.|
Photograph by Norman Hallendy; see the book Inuksuit: Silent Messengers of the Arctic.