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Establishing a Cultural Centre

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Produced by the Internship Group 2001-2002 – Jessica Tomic-Bagshaw, Kerri McDonnell, Georgina Nicloux, Shirley Muldon, Claudette Rocan

Introduction

Why are we developing our own cultural centre?

“Place is a key element in our identity. Who we are is reflected in the places we occupy and the spaces we control. These places range from nation to region, state, metropolitan area, community, neighbourhood block, and residential dwelling. Each location has profound social meaning for us, and in a literal sense defines not only who we are, but also how we live and die.” 1

There is great need for native groups – especially those of us who live and work in our own communities – to establish a greater presence in the world around us. We need to voice our ideas and concerns and, more importantly, to assert our own identity. Unfortunately, there are varying, conflicting interpretations of our native cultural groups. With a community cultural centre of our own, we have a place to work together to devise a system of terms and ideas to discuss and/or interpret our community’s values, beliefs, and production. A community cultural centre can be a powerful tool in establishing our community’s voice and identity.

Why build a community cultural centre now?

Since the Task Force on Museums and First Peoples was established in 1988, many agencies and native groups have been looking for ways to reconcile the gap between the interests of native peoples and museum practices 2. Now is a good time to develop our community’s cultural centre, because many funding agencies are currently looking for opportunities to fulfill their mandates to aid aboriginal organizations. A self-help project would be an effective and productive project for our native communities. “The places in which we live, work, and play are fundamental resources, like time or money. The access we have to these resources dramatically affects our well-being.” 3 A community cultural centre gives us a chance to work with many members of our community and, the sooner we get started, the better we can help ourselves.

Why build one in our community?

Currently, there is a trend among various museums and researchers to look for greater involvement from the aboriginal population for the interpretation of native history, practices, beliefs, and material culture. In return, museums and researchers are striving to give native groups greater access to their collections and, in some cases, repatriate sacred objects to the community. Who better to tell our story than ourselves? Our community could act as the front-runner for our history, stories, interests and values, responding to outside inquiries and, in some cases, hosting the repatriated objects in our cultural centre. We could provide more in-depth reconstruction of significant moments of our community’s past. One of the most beneficial reasons to build a centre in our community is to showcase strengths and talents through employment opportunities within our community.

Why a community cultural centre?

For many years, outside institutions and museums have controlled how native-made objects were purchased, sold, displayed, and valued, with little consultation with producers. “To control a museum means precisely to control the representation of a community and its highest values.” 4 In our own community cultural centre, we could determine for ourselves which ideas and objects are valued and showcased. We could collect, categorize, and display objects and programs in our native-run centre based on our community’s values and needs.

What can you do with the centre?

For us to have a strong and healthy community, we need many interlocking and interconnected programs and services. At a community-run cultural centre, the choices and opportunities are numerous. The most important starting point for the centre’s action plan would be discussions with friends and neighbours in our community to determine needs and interests. We can have any number of programs and services to serve the community. For example, a research centre, museum, library, meeting hall, and/or a theatre space would be useful in that we can house community social programs and benefit our community. Something else to consider is the establishment of a boutique for local artists to show and sell their work. Most importantly, our community can determine for itself what programs and services are needed to help foster a healthy community environment.

What would a community cultural centre accomplish?

First of all, our contacts and knowledge of our community, with its ideas and needs mixed with a desire to act, is a form of empowerment. “Neighbourhood context can promote a form of protection against risk and source of empowerment for the community to take action against the hazards they face.” 5 Our hometowns can now develop greater social, political and ideological presence with a community-run centre. People from within and without our communities need to know about our history-past, present and future. Our cultural centre can help provide that information. One of the most significant benefits of building a cultural centre will be our ability to foster an environment with greater levels of understanding for both our community and the larger society that surrounds us. In our own cultural centre, ideas and interpretations of our people can be housed in an open and straightforward manner.

What are some of our cultural centre’s advantages?

We can determine what our community needs and see that we develop programs to address those needs more directly. Working towards self-help will assist in building a strong and healthy community. Of course, with a cultural centre we can create a more meaningful, dynamic and organic relationship with both our audience and community members through our outreach programs, displays and exhibitions. Our facilities can “take the visitors on a kind of mental journey, a stepping out of the present into a universe of timeless values.” 6 Our programs can grow and evolve as the need arises, a fact that will only empower the members of our community. Re-establishing contextual references for the ideas and objects that they meet in our centre will help to clear up misunderstandings. This is a major advantage in developing a community cultural centre.


 

1 K. Fitzpatrick & M. LaGory. Unhealthy Places, p. 4.

2 T. Hill & T. Nicks “The Task Force on Museums and First Peoples,” p. 81.

3 K. Fitzpatrick & M. LaGory. Unhealthy Places, p. 4.

4 C. Duncan “Art Museum as Ritual” in Civilizing Rituals, p. 8.

5 K. Fitzpatrick & M. LaGory. Unhealthy Places, p. 14.

6 C. Duncan “Art Museum as Ritual” in Civilizing Rituals, p. 19.

History

Heritage is the tangible embodiment of intangible historical, cultural, aesthetic and social values. Consequently, it is not an absolute entity but a cultural abstract that may be contested and interpreted in many different ways. Museums are one kind of institution charged with creating and commemorating a select version of the past. Certain aspects of the historical record are singled out while other areas of interest are submerged. The predominant historical narrative established in Canada was national. With such a national focus, museums have highlighted certain key events that justified the creation and expansion of Canada. The depiction of Aboriginal cultures in museums is a direct reflection of how society has attempted to fit them into a particular slot of its national memory. The focus of this examination is to explore the changing trends in the representation of Aboriginal peoples and their cultures by North American museums, particularly in Canada.

Even though the collection of art objects and natural specimens has a long precedent among the Chinese and Japanese, public museums are a European cultural phenomenon. Beginning during the age of exploration in the sixteenth century, objects deemed as curiosities or trophies were gathered from around the globe. The earliest museum-like collections were private collections of natural and cultural artifacts known as “cabinets of curiosities.” With the exception of scholarly collections, these collections were usually haphazardly organized and contained a jumble of various objects. The gradual incorporation of these collections into the first European museums in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries led them to be handled and interpreted differently. The perspective and views presented and perpetuated by museums was, with rare exceptions, primarily Eurocentric. From their earliest representations in museums, Aboriginals were presented as a very different cultural entity. They were perceived as presenting an earlier, primitive stage of development 1.

North American museums have developed very differently from museums in Europe, yet they have followed the European precedent in their representation of Aboriginal peoples. It was assumed in the nineteenth century that the intellectual and technological inferiority of Native cultures would doom them to eventual extinction. This belief in the eventual disappearance of Aboriginal peoples was seen to validate the creation and existence of museum collections. North American museums saw themselves as stewards for the material culture of Aboriginal peoples 2.

The perception of Aboriginal cultures as inferior and disappearing also influenced collection methods and object selection. Authentic “Indians” were represented in museums as including all those traditions and technologies that existed before the arrival of Europeans. To present such change as European influence on the construction and style of material culture of artifacts was perceived as loss of culture 3. Since museums perceived themselves as guardians of Aboriginal culture, they wanted to preserve and present what they perceived as authentic representations of these peoples. Few exhibitions about Aboriginal peoples related to the contemporary world. The result was a representation of Aboriginal cultures as frozen in time and as isolated remnants of the past. Further developments and adaptation to present circumstances were neglected 4.

Until the early 1990s, the installations in most museums continued to use cultural materials from Aboriginal peoples as visual artifacts to accompany dioramas of traditional cultures. These older displays represented Aboriginal peoples in various aspects of daily life. Little effort was made to indicate the deeper cultural meaning of cultural materials. Painting, beadwork, or quillwork was displayed without cultural context, merely stressing technique. Displays rarely included Aboriginal perspectives and the people represented had no role in interpreting or participating in the decision about which collections were shown or what messages were conveyed 5.

Over the course of this long history of representation of Aboriginal cultures, attitudes only began to change in the 1960s. However, it was not until the 1990s that genuine substantive change took place 6. A process of re-evaluation and reassessing of attitudes towards Aboriginal peoples permitted such trends to be broken in the redevelopment of older galleries and new museums. Canada’s Task Force on Museums and First Peoples, winding up in 1992, prompted museum curators to share their exhibition authority with representative communities. The Task Force was established in response to the boycott of a 1988 Glenbow Museum exhibition, The Spirit Sings by the Lubicon Cree of Northern Alberta. They took exception to the fact that the main sponsor of the exhibit was the same oil company with whom they were engaged in a land dispute. The Task Force, which included representatives from the First Nations Assembly and the Canadian Museums Association, developed a set of guidelines for the development of future exhibits. The issues raised were organized into three categories: increased involvement of Aboriginal peoples in the interpretation of their culture and history by cultural institutions; improved access to museum collections by Aboriginal peoples; and the repatriation of artifacts and human remains from museum collections. The Task Force acknowledged that Aboriginal peoples own or have moral claim to their heritage, hence they should participate fully in its presentation and in development of policies 7.

Museums are beginning to work with Aboriginal communities to collaborate on research, exhibits, programs and collection management. New representational methods alter the traditional power and responsibilities of curators and influence what will be selected for exhibition. Exhibits resulting from the consultation process are noticeably different than those presented in the past. Some museums are up-dating their exhibits, which had been organized around the ethnographic past, by including contemporary materials and demonstrating the cultural perseverance of Aboriginal peoples 8. There has been no lack of good faith on the part of museum officials and Aboriginal communities in initiating change. It may appear that changes are gradual, but it is important to note that there are various challenges inherent in moving from policy to practice 9.

An alternative forum of discussion and dissemination of knowledge has been the development of Aboriginal-run institutions. The participation of local Aboriginal cultures at the Head Smashed In facility in Alberta and Wanuskewin Centre in Saskatoon demonstrates the value of including local Aboriginal culture at all stages of interpretation, development and program delivery. Cultural continuity is demonstrated by continued use of gallery space along with the practice of displaying traditional artifacts alongside contemporary artwork 10. As these centres develop and grow, they will certainly continue to be a new and vital part of the cultural landscape.

This review is not an exhaustive examination of either the history and range of exhibition types or associated ideological statements representing Aboriginal cultures. Discussion and debate will continue to further analyze how museums interpret and exhibit Aboriginal culture. Yet, many challenges have been overcome during the past decade, allowing partnership and collaboration between museums and Aboriginal peoples. It is recognized that Aboriginal peoples should be full partners in any museum exhibition and any program dealing with their heritage. New displays differ fundamentally from older models, since they now include the voices and ideas of Aboriginal peoples. New policy initiatives and a better working relationship among museums and Aboriginal peoples are an important benefit in the remaking of traditional museums. Museums and cultural centres have the potential to assume a new role, no longer the temples of an elite class, but multicultural centres fostering ongoing dialogue.


1 Maurer, Evan. 2000. “Presenting the American Indian: From Europe to America.” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 15-28.

2 Ames, Michael. 1992. Cannibal Tours and Glass Boxes: the Anthropology of Museums. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

3 Doxtator, Deborah. Autumn 1988. “The Home of the Indian Culture and Other Stories in the Museum.” Muse VI (3): 26-29.

4 Doxtator, Deborah. Autumn 1988. “The Home of the Indian Culture and Other Stories in the Museum.” Muse VI (3): 26-29.

5 Maurer, Evan. 2000. “Presenting the American Indian: From Europe to America.” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 15-28.

6 Maurer, Evan. 2000. “Presenting the American Indian: From Europe to America.” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 15-28.

7 Hill, Tom and Trudy Nicks. Summer/Fall 1992. “The Task Force on Museums and First Peoples.” Muse VI (3): 81-84.

8 Doxtator, Deborah. Autumn 1988. “The Home of the Indian Culture and Other Stories in the Museum.” Muse VI (3): 26-29.

9 Ames, Michael. 2000. “Are Changing Representation of First Peoples in Canadian Museums and Galleries Challenging the Curatorial Prerogative?” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 73-88.

10 Conaty, Gerald. 1989. “Canada’s First Nations and Museums: A Saskatchewan Experience.” The International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship 8: 407-413.

Getting Started

If you are considering establishing a cultural centre or community museum, these guidelines may provide insight into this involved process. Establishing a cultural centre requires a great amount of planning and organization. Note that the following is only a brief outline. Since there is no single way to establish a cultural centre, these points should be viewed as general guidelines only.

The Vision

A vision begins with an idea. Think about your goals and how to achieve them. The vision should direct and guide you throughout the project.

Determine Community Interest

There are various ways to ascertain community interest. One method is to hire a research firm to prepare a feasibility study. The consultant will prepare the study and analyze the results. This kind of study may cost between $5,000 and $10,000 1, depending on the scope of the project.

Another way to determine community interest is to conduct a survey. For best results, a survey should be filled out by as many stakeholders and members of the community as possible. Survey information can be collected in many different ways, by telephone, by mail or over the Internet 2.

Focus groups can also indicate community interest. These focus groups are small groups of people with similar interests or vocations, such as teachers, elders, students, etc. An informal meeting will elicit various opinions from community members 3.

The information gathered through these various methods should be used to support your grant applications 4.

Start Small

Rome wasn’t built in a day. Begin with a small rather than a large cultural centre that the community can manage, and make plans to expand over time. The organization should also have a clear mandate. Collection management and conservation policies should be established early in the development of a cultural centre with provisions for optimal storage, handling and use of the collection 5.

Establish a Board of Directors/Trustees

Ideally, Board members should come from a wide variety of backgrounds. For example, they could be business owners, individuals with cultural/heritage backgrounds, female and male community members, and represent various age segments of the population (Tanner-Kaplash, p. 2-5) 6. The people selected for the Board should also be highly motivated and have a strong interest in the project.

Determine which individuals should occupy the various Board positions – president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, etc. Form sub-committees to carry out specific duties. You will also need a policy that clearly outlines the roles and responsibilities of the Board members.

Develop a Mandate and Mission Statement

These documents should be clear and concise. The mandate should state what you hope to accomplish. The mission statement dictates the direction of the facility and should include what the organization will do and why 7.

Approach Community Organizations

Working with other organizations will increase your odds for success. Community organizations can provide considerable support to cultural centres in the form of financial resources, supplies and volunteers. Some of the organizations to consider could include band councils, local businesses and municipalities.

Establishing partnerships with other museums, cultural centres and/or private sector businesses is mutually beneficial. All parties will benefit from shared business experience, publicity and promotion, networking and keeping abreast of new developments in the cultural sector. Remind local businesses that the tourists that visit the cultural centres/museums will also benefit the region. The longer an individual or group stays in your community, the more money these people will spend at the various local businesses 8.

Develop a Business Plan

“Planning involves taking a look at where your organization is now, making decisions about where you would like to be within a certain period of time (i.e. 1, 3, 5 years) and then creating some logical steps to getting there” (Tanner-Kaplash, p. 2-27) 9.

To ensure financial security a cultural centre must be managed like a business. A business plan allows the centre to focus and organize financial matters. If no one in your project has a business background it is possible to hire a consultant to write the business plan.

A Business Plan generally:

  • Includes financial planning, indicating how funds will be raised, estimated income, and operating costs
  • Defines short and long term goals
  • Establishes operating procedures

For more information about creating a business plan, check outhttp://www.howtowritebusinessplans.com.

Registering as a Non-Profit Organization

The provincial government administers the registration of non-profit organizations. To register an organization, you must have a constitution and by-laws. The content of these documents varies from province to province. Check your provincial Non-profit Corporations Act for more details.

Although it is not strictly necessary, you could also incorporate your organization. This process provides legal status, which is often needed in business transactions. Other benefits include registering for charitable organization status, and the right to sue or be sued, which protects members from personal liability and allows membership to change without affecting the existence of the organization (Tanner-Kaplash, p.2-27) 10.

Create Policies

Policies are the guidelines by which an organization governs itself. All policies must be written in accordance with the mission statement and mandate 11.

Numerous policies have to be established early in the development of a cultural centre. Initial policies are required for organizational needs and application forms for funds. Other policies range from corporate (financial matters) and administrative (personnel) to collection management and conservation 12.

Funding

When seeking funding from various sources, make sure that your organization and projects meet the eligibility criteria. Proposals should be prepared with clearly defined and articulated objectives and they should also be complete. Another important element to a proposal is the budget. It must include all project costs, sources of funding and projected revenues. Do not leave preparation of proposals to the last minute; late or incomplete proposals are usually not accepted 13.

See Writing a Grant Proposal for more tips on writing proposals.


 

1 Graham, Karen, Director Audit and Evaluation, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Personal interview. 4 March 2002.

2 Graham, Karen, Director Audit and Evaluation, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Personal interview. 4 March 2002.

3 Graham, Karen, Director Audit and Evaluation, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Personal interview. 4 March 2002.

4 Graham, Karen, Director Audit and Evaluation, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Personal interview. 4 March 2002.

5 Robertson, Céline, Consultant, Cultural Development, Arts & Heritage, Ontario Region, Canadian Heritage. Personal interview.

22 March 2002.

6 Tanner-Kaplash, Sonja. 1996. Basic Museum Studies. Victoria: British Columbia Museums Association.

7 Pilon, Elmer, Director, Bytown Museum. Personal interview.

1 February 2002.

8 Pilon, Elmer, Director, Bytown Museum. Personal interview.

1 February 2002.

9 Tanner-Kaplash, Sonja. 1996. Basic Museum Studies. Victoria: British Columbia Museums Association.

10 Tanner-Kaplash, Sonja. 1996. Basic Museum Studies. Victoria: British Columbia Museums Association.

11 Pilon, Elmer, Director, Bytown Museum. Personal interview.

1 February 2002.

12 Robertson, Céline, Consultant, Cultural Development, Arts & Heritage, Ontario Region, Canadian Heritage. Personal interview.

22 March 2002.

13 Robertson, Céline, Consultant, Cultural Development, Arts & Heritage, Ontario Region, Canadian Heritage. Personal interview.

22 March 2002.

Writing a Grant Proposal

Covering Letter

  • Mentions any contact the organization may have had with the foundation before applying and draws attention to the proposal’s key ideas
  • Presents an overview of the proposal in a more personal tone

Summary

  • Provides a brief overview of the entire project and cost
  • Gives a one-sentence overview of the project and how much money is being requested in the proposal
  • Next come key ideas (one or two sentences each) from each section of the proposal
  • The section closes with the prognosis for future program funding.
  • Gear the summary and covering letter to the priorities of the foundation.

Introduction or Background

  • What are the organization’s strengths and qualifications?
  • What is the history of the organization?
  • What is the organization’s philosophical approach to its field and its major accomplishments?
  • What are the organization’s current programs?
  • Who are the constituents served by these programs?
  • What are the organization’s other credentials?

Problem Statement or Needs Assessment

  • What will the proposed project try to improve or eradicate?

Goals, Objectives, and Results

  • What is the vision for success in both broad and pragmatic terms?

Methods

  • What is the project concept and what action needs to be taken?

Evaluation

  • How will the organization assess goals, objectives and results?

Budget

  • What are the project costs and sources of income?

Future and additional funding

  • Does the fund or grant cover all costs?
  • How will additional funds be raised if required?
  • How will costs be covered in the future?

Conclusion

  • Remind the reader of the point of the proposal and include a compelling finale to serve as the last thing the reader will remember about your proposal.

Appendix

  • Proof of Non-profit status required
  • List of Board of Directors (and any advisory boards)
  • Budget from current year
  • Financial statements from previous years

Sources of Funding

Grants:

  • Contributions made to an organization by a foundation, corporation, or government agency are called project grants, program grants, or general operating grants.

Contracts:

  • Payments made in exchange for services. A contract is more clearly and specifically defined by the agency that awards it.

Corporate Contributions:

  • Some corporations create their own foundations, award contributions directly, and give in-kind gifts, contributions of goods and services, rather than or in addition to cash contributions.

Individual Contributions:Common types are:

  • Annual gifts
  • Major gifts
  • Memberships
  • Planned gift-giving/bequests
  • Special events
  • Endowments

Foundations:

Typical questions you will want to consider:

  • Geography: Does the foundation award grants in your area?
  • Type of Support: Does the foundation award the kind of grant you want?
  • Subject: Does this foundation award grants for the kind of project you are proposing or for the type of organization that you are?
  • What is the need?
  • Where is the source?
  • Check history. Has it been tried before?
  • Develop strategic alliances and partnerships.
  • Think outside the box.
  • Look for opportunities.
  • You must be viewed as an asset.
  • Show up with good news.
  • Who are you serving?

Grant-seekers:

Grant-seekers should:

  • State their plan and get to the point.
  • Use the same vocabulary.
  • Make sure to use buzz-words at least once or twice if you can.
  • Ensure the application states how it meets all criteria.
  • Plan for success to succeed.
  • Have a policy in place so that you will know what you are prepared to give before you receive sponsorship.

Grant Application:

  • Cover scope of work to be done.
  • Keep it crisp, neat (bound), concise. Stick to the point and explain what you are planning to do with the money.
  • Must look professional
  • Show accountability
  • Financial records
  • Final product
  • Always ask for more, since contingencies always arise.
  • You must provide what you have promised. Include administrative costs.
  • The application should reflect your mission statement.

Tips for Funding Proposals

Have a fundraising plan:

  • Give a brief overview of sources and contributions from previous years.
  • List likely sources for current year
  • List unlikely sources for current year

Outline potential earned revenue.

Identify goals of various types of contributions.

Sources:

  • Government grants or contracts
  • Foundation grants
  • Corporate contributions
  • Individual contributions

Considerations:

  • Who will work on fundraising?
  • How many sources of funding do you need?
  • Estimate the amount of time it will take to raise funds.

Create a cash-flow plan that estimates when income will be received and when major expenses will need to be met.

Once established, fundraising is needed to generate additional revenue to supplement core funding and earned income.

People and your relationship with them, are the keys to long-term success in fundraising.

Fundraising should be the responsibility of the Board, since the museum curator should not have to “go begging” for his own salary.

Common Grants

  • Capital: property and building purchases or renovations
  • Endowments: money the organization needs to invest in order to secure a stable source of operating funds
  • General Operating grant: for day-to-day operations
  • Program-related Investment: a loan paid from the foundation’s endowment at a reasonable rate of interest
  • Project Grant: short-term support for specific activities
  • Seed Funding: needed to start a new activity or organization
  • Technical Assistance: money for professional advice from experts

Bibliography

Bibliography – Introduction

Duncan, Carol. “Introduction” and “The Art Museum as Ritual,” Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums. Routledge: London and New York, 1995

Fitzpatrick, Kevin & Mark LaGory. Unhealthy Places. Routledge: New York and London, 2000

Hill, Tom & Trudy Nicks. “The Task Force on Museums and First Peoples,” MuseSummer/Fall, 1992

Karp, Ivan & Fred Wilson. “Constructing the Spectacle of Culture in Museums,”Thinking about Exhibitions. Ed. R. Greenberg, B. Furuson and S. Nairne. London and New York: Routledge, 1996

Musie, D.A. “Museums and the Canadian Community: A Historical Perspective” inTowards the 21st Century: New Discourses for Canada’s National Museums. Hull: CMC

Nooter-Roberts, Mary. “Exhibitionism, Museums and African Art” in Exhibitionism: Museums and African Art. New York: The Museum for African Art, 1994.

Vergo, Peter. The New Museology. London: Reaktion Books, 1989

Bibliography – History

Ames, Michael. 2000. “Are Changing Representation of First Peoples in Canadian Museums and Galleries Challenging the Curatorial Prerogative?” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 73-88.

Ames, Michael. 1992. Cannibal tours and glass boxes: the Anthropology of Museums. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Conaty, Gerald. 1989. “Canada’s First Nations and Museums: A Saskatchewan Experience.” The International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship 8: 407-413.

Doxtator, Deborah. Autumn 1988. “The Home of the Indian Culture and Other Stories in the Museum.” Muse VI (3): 26-29.

Hill, Tom and Trudy Nicks. Summer/Fall 1992. “The Task Force on Museums and First Peoples.” Muse VI (3): 81-84.

Maurer, Evan. 2000. “Presenting the American Indian: From Europe to America.” In The Changing Presentation of the American Indian: Museums and Native Culture. Michael Ames, ed. 15-28.

Bibliography – Getting Started

Graham, Karen, Director Audit and Evaluation, Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Personal interview. 4 March. 2002.

Pilon, Elmer, Director, Bytown Museum. Personal interview. 1 February. 2002.

Robertson, Céline, Consultant, Cultural Development, Arts & Heritage, Ontario Region, Canadian Heritage. Personal interview. 22 March. 2002.

Tanner-Kaplash, Sonja. 1996. Basic Museum Studies. Victoria: British Columbia Museums Association.

Bibliography – Writing Proposals

Hutton, Stan and Frances Phillips. 2001. Non-Profit Kit for Dummies. New York: Hungry Minds.

Funding Agencies

Cultural/Educational Centres Program
Learning and Development Directorate
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
10 Wellington Street
Hull, Quebec
K1A 0H4
Tel.: (819) 997-1770
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ps/edu/cecp_e.html

Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Tourism
Aboriginal and Ecotourism
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Tel.: (204) 945-1519
http://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/tourism.html

Canadian Heritage
Aboriginal Women’s Program
2nd Floor
275 Portage Avenue
P.O. Box 2160
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3C 3R5
Tel.: (204) 983-3601
Fax: (204) 984-6996
http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/native.htm

Department of Canadian Heritage
Canadian Arts and Heritage Sustainability Program
15 Eddy Street, 3rd Floor
Hull, Quebec
K1A 0M5
Tel.: (819) 997-5245
Fax: (819) 994-6249
E-mail: cahsp_pcap@pch.gc.ca
http://www.pch.gc.ca/arts/pcapc_cahsp/index_e.cfm

Canadian Heritage
Cultural Spaces Canada
2nd Floor
275 Portage Avenue
P.O. Box 2160
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3C 3R5
Tel.: (204) 984-6624
Fax: (204) 983-5365
E-mail: PNWT_PTNO@pch.gc.ca
http://www.pch.gc.ca/arts/arts/cultspaces_e.cfm

Department of Canadian Heritage
Heritage Policy and Research Division
Museums Assistance Program
15 Eddy Street, 3rd Floor
Hull, Quebec
K1A 0M5
Tel.: (819) 997-8869
Fax: (819) 997-8756
E-mail: map_pam@pch.gc.ca
http://www.pch.gc.ca/arts/patrimoine_heritage/pam_e.cfm

Northern Development Strategy
Manitoba Aboriginal and Northern Affairs
http://www.gov.mb.ca/ana/nds.html

Museums Assistance Program
http://www.pch.gc.ca/arts/patrimoine_heritage/pam_e.cfm

Definitions

MuseumsThe official definition of museums as set out by the International Council of Museums, (ICOM) states: A museum is a not-for-profit, permanent institution, in the service of society and its development and open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of man and his environment.

Aboriginal Cultural CentresAccording to the Canadian Museum Association, Aboriginal cultural institutions, particularly cultural centres, concentrate primarily on the notion of a living culture. Interpretation or cultural centres focus on an experience-based visit through an interactive, personal approach. Interpretation centres largely use objects to communicate the essence of a site or theme.

Acknowledgements

Internship Group 2001-2002

Aboriginal Training Programme in Museum Practices
Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation (CMCC)
Jessica Tomic-Bagshaw
Kerri McDonnell
Georgina Nicloux
Shirley Muldon
Claudette Rocan

Every member of this year’s Aboriginal Internship Group worked diligently on development of this project. Their hard work made this project possible.

We would like to express our thanks and gratitude to the people who helped us on this project. We sincerely appreciate the information and knowledge that these individuals shared with us.

Sandra Hammel
Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
Web Page Design and Production

Stephen Alsford
Museum Webmaster
Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
Mr. Alsford helped put together the technical aspects of this web page. He also gave us training sessions on working with HTML. Thank you, Stephen.

Karen Graham
Director, Audit and Evaluation
Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
Thank you, Karen, for your help and information about surveys, feasibility studies, and marketing.

Dan Hoffman
Curator
Nepean Museum
Ottawa, Ontario
We greatly appreciate Mr. Hoffman’s contribution regarding how a small museum must market itself effectively and make efficient use of resources.

Jean-François O’Bomsawin
Co-ordinator
Aboriginal Training Programme in Museum Practices
Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
Thank you, Jean-François, for helping us with project coordination. Your help and guidance were outstanding.

Mr. Elmer A. Pilon
Director
Bytown Museum
Ottawa, Ontario
Mr. Pilon shared his knowledge and experience regarding regional museum management, including establishing a vision, mandate, and policies. The group is thankful for your many valuable ideas and suggestions.

Céline Robertson
Consultant, Ontario Region
Cultural Development, Arts & Heritage
Canadian Heritage
Ottawa, Ontario
Celine contributed her knowledge regarding cultural centre development, and provided us with information about funding programs, criteria, and related requirements. Ms. Robertson is an excellent resource. Thanks again.