Frederick Wilkerson Waugh
Frederick Wilkerson Waugh was born on April 14, 1872, in Langford, Ontario not far from Grand River and the Six Nations Haudenosaunee [Iroquois] Reserve. He had a strong interest in technology, linguistics, and ethnology, and in his spare time conducted ethnological research on the Six Nations Reserve and on Manitoulin Island. Initially, he combined his research with his work as editor of The Furniture Journal, in Toronto.
In August 1911 he started corresponding with Edward Sapir, Head of the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada. Sapir took an interest in Waugh's research activities and, in December 1911, offered him a contract to study Iroquoian technology. In mid-July 1913, Waugh was formally hired to work in the Anthropology Division as a preparator for the Ethnology Section. In December 1919, he was promoted to Assistant Ethnologist and then to Associate Ethnologist around 1923, a position he held until his mysterious disappearance at the end of September 1924.
During his career in the Anthropology Division, Frederick Waugh conducted much research among various native groups in eastern Canada. From 1911 to 1915, and up to 1918, Waugh devoted his time to working with the Haudenosaunee [Iroquois] — mainly from the Six Nations, but also those from Kahnawake [Caughnawaga].
In 1916, 1919 and 1920, he met the Anishnaabe [Ojibwa] from Long Lake, Nipigon, and Lone Lake (Lac Seul) as well as the Odawa from Manitoulin Island. Finally, during the period from 1921 to 1924, Waugh became interested in the Innu [Naskapi], the Inuit of the Labrador coast, as well as the Innu [Montagnais] from the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River.
Even though Waugh never worked in western Canada, he seized the opportunity of the British Columbia Native Chiefs' visit in May 1916 to study string games of the Stl'atl'imx [Lillooet], Ktunaxa [Kootenay], Okanagan and Nlaka'pamux [Thompson].
Waugh's research deals with material culture (technology), food, medicine, rituals, mythology and ethno-botany. Frederick Waugh did not publish much of his findings but left many field and research notes, manuscripts, photographs and portions of his work correspondence.
By Frederick W. Waugh:
About Frederick W. Waugh: