mid-nineteenth century, Canada experienced an industrial
revolution that changed the lives of many working Canadians.
Large new factories opened up, with strict rules and regulations -
as well as harsh punishments for those who failed to follow them.
New machines replaced some workers and became the masters of others;
the work was often dangerous, demanding and badly paid.
The first workers to rebel against these conditions were those
with the most influence: the skilled craft workers. Despite strong
opposition from employers and governments, these workers formed
organizations that promoted their interests while maintaining their
independence and traditions.