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MenuWhite birchCommon juniperCreeping juniperAndorra juniper
White garden lily Western red lily


Betula papyrifera

White birch

White birch


Botanical Information

  • Deciduous tree, grows up to 25 m
  • Prefers woods and rocky slopes
  • Male flowers and female catkins appear before leaves in early spring



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Points of Interest

  • Bark used by Aboriginal peoples to build canoes, as a waterproof layer on wigwams, and to make splints, spoons, dishes, artwork and baskets
  • Many medicinal uses by Aboriginal peoples, including remedies for skin problems, blood disease and burns
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Juniperus communis

Common juniper

Common juniper


Botanical Information

  • Evergreen shrub, grows up to 1.5 m
  • Prefers dry rocky soil, and sterile pastures and fields




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Points of Interest

  • Widely used by Aboriginal peoples in remedies, particularly for colds and coughs; fragrant branches used in ceremonies
  • Berries widely used in herbal diuretics
  • Fruit used to flavour gin
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Juniperus horizontalis

Creeping juniper

Creeping juniper


Botanical Information

  • Evergreen shrub, grows up to 1.5 m
  • Prefers rocky, sandy or boggy sites




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Points of Interest

  • Used by Aboriginal peoples in various remedies, particularly to treat colds
  • Wood can be used to make paper and fencing
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Juniperus horizontalis plumose

Andorra juniper

Andorra juniper


Botanical Information

  • Evergreen shrub, grows up to 1.5 m
  • Prefers sandy or rocky lakeshores, woods
    and pastures
  • Leaves turn purple over winter
  • A variation of creeping juniper

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Points of Interest

  • Fresh leaves traditionally boiled and used for medicinal purposes
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Lilium candidum

White garden lily

White garden lily


Botanical Information

  • Garden perennial, grows up to 1.5 m
  • Prefers semi-shaded areas with rich soil
  • White flowers bloom in the summer
  • Also known as Madonna lily
  • Not native to Canada


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The white garden lily
is not native to Canada

Points of Interest

  • The floral emblem of Quebec from 1963 to 1999, when it was replaced by the blue flag
  • Resembles the fleur-de-lis on the Quebec flag
  • May be the earliest lily ever cultivated; grown circa 1500 B.C. in Turkey and southeastern Europe
  • Fragrance used in perfumes and cosmetics
  • Regarded as a symbol of purity
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Lilium philadelphicum andinum

 Lavonia R. Stockelbach - Courtesy of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada


Western red lily


Botanical Information

  • Perennial herb, grows up to 1 m
  • Prefers dry open woods, thickets, clearings and grassy meadows
  • Scarlet flowers bloom in the summer




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Points of Interest

  • The floral emblem of Saskatchewan since 1941
  • Bulb consumed by Aboriginal peoples as food and in medicinal teas
  • Flowers an antidote for spider bites
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