During the Archaic Period, the inhabitants of the Ottawa Valley used axes, adzes and gouges for the first time. These tools reveal the importance of woodworking in daily life. Gouges were probably used to hollow out tree trunks to make dugout canoes, containers or platters. Axes and adzes could have been used to cut and split wood.
The tools shown here had to be made of stone that could withstand significant impact. The stone was initially shaped by chipping to remove small flakes. Harder stones were used to peck the roughed-out form, creating small pits on the surface of the tool. The final shape was obtained by grinding with sand and water or abrasive stones.